J. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. | BIO | UPDATED date
Each example element is accompanied by a citation whose mouseover note provides context. The element examples are organized according to the following order: Titles, Internet sources, authors and other contributors, publishers, and dates.
The title element consists of a title, an optional alternative title, optional version-edition information, and optional content clarifications. Consider the following title elements shown in the transformed reader view:
Macbeth (The Tragedy of Macbeth)[macbeth]
Badlands \[review of the film Badlands by Terrence Malick][badlands]
The first example links to a list of 26 editions listed by Good Reads. The second includes an alternative title. The third clarifies the title of a review by mentioning the film reviewed.
The Citations Online architecture allows some references to be subsidiary to others. For clarity, the mouseover note for a subsidiary reference includes the title of the corresponding root reference. Consider the following subsidiary titles and notes shown in the reader view:
Cherry Tree[George, cherry]
9.4 Four Elements of a Reference[APA, elements]
"'What's to-day, my fine fellow?' said Scrooge ..."[dickens, Christmas]
The link element gives one or more hyperlinks to representations of the referenced content. The hyperlinks are of two kinds — presentations and portrayals. Some examples:
Cherry Tree Myth. Article.[George]
The above example has a link to a presentation of the named article.
Although this eBook is available online, it is not directly available because no available URL allows a reference to link to the eBook. All of the links in this reference are portrayal links.
The contributor element is a list of authors and other contributors. Roles, biographies, and other credibility-relevant data accompany contributors. Two examples:
Matthew Childers (author,
illustrator, writer; bio)[Childers]
— an author with multiple roles and a biography
American Psychological Association (about)[APA]
— a corporate author with an about page
Publishing activities are performed by publishing houses and their imprints as well as newspapers, magazines, journals, and websites. Some examples:
— a publisher of live performances
— an author as the publisher
— a posting platform
The date element shows how and when content was created or placed online. Some examples:
Posted 2014 August 10[monkey]
— a social media post
Published 1911, posted 2019 December 23[dickens]
— an online book with a pre-Internet publication date
Updated 2021 September 28[lung-cancer]
— an updated Wikipedia article
The date format is chosen by the content creator.
The Citations Online architecture is described in Citations Online: Preliminary Guide for Content Creators. The research behind this architecture is presented in the article Citations Online: Architecture Development.
icon icons/cherryTree.png. George. Cherry Tree Myth. Article. Jay Richardson (author). mountvernon.org. undated.
macbeth. Macbeth (The Tragedy of Macbeth). Play script. William Shakespeare, Kenneth Muir (editor). Globe Theatre, London; Arden Shakespeare. Performed 1606, second Arden series published 1997 January 31.
lung-cancer. Classification [of lung cancers]. Article section. WikiProject Medicine (supervising project). Wikipedia. Updated 2021 September 28.
monkey. "I am who I am". Meme. Post Planner. Facebook. Posted 2014 August 10.
icon icons/dickens.png. dickens. A Christmas Carol. Online book. Charles Dickens (bio), Arthur C Michael (illustrator). Hodder and Stoughton, Library of Congress. Published 1911, posted 2019 December 23.
dickens, Christmas. "'What's to-day, my fine fellow?' said Scrooge ...". Page 110. ~. ~. ~.
APA. APA Style Guide (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition). eBook vendors. American Psychological Association. Self-published. Published 2019 October 1, copyright 2020.
APA, elements. 9.4 Four Elements of a Reference. Page 283; APA article. ~. ~. ~.